Improve this doc

Balena Fleet Management Masterclass

  • Masterclass Type: Core
  • Maximum Expected Time To Complete: 90 minutes

Prerequisite Classes

This masterclass builds upon knowledge that has been taught in previous classes. To gain the most from this masterclass, we recommend that you first undertake the following masterclasses:


This masterclass serves as an introduction to managing an application fleet with balena. In this masterclass you will learn how to:

  • Set configuration, environment, and service variables.
  • Tag and filter devices and releases.
  • Use a release policy to pin applications and devices to defined releases.
  • Identify the different available roles for a user in balenaCloud.
  • Obtain access tokens for interacting with the API, CLI, and SDKs.
  • Describe best practices for applications in a production environment.

If you have any questions about this masterclass as you proceed through it, or would like clarifications on any of the topics raised here, please do raise an issue as on the repository that contains this file, or contact us in the balena forums where we’ll be delighted to answer your questions.

The location of the repository that contains this masterclass and all associated code is located here.

Hardware and Software Requirements

It is assumed that the reader has access to the following:

  • A locally cloned copy of this repository Balena Fleet Management Masterclass. Either:
    • git clone
    • Download ZIP file (from Clone or download->Download ZIP) and then unzip it to a suitable directory.
  • A balena supported device, such as a balenaFin 1.1, Raspberry Pi 3 or Intel NUC. If you don't have a device, you can emulate an Intel NUC by installing VirtualBox and following this guide or by running balenaOS in a Docker container on your development machine.
  • A suitable text editor for developing code on your development platform (e.g. Visual Code).
  • A suitable shell environment for command execution (such as bash).
  • The balena CLI tools installed.
  • The jq utility installed on the development machine.
  • A balenaCloud account.
  • A local installation of Docker.


The exercises use a combination of the balenaCloud dashboard (dashboard), balena CLI (CLI) and balena API (API). The exercises include commands which can be run in a shell and are represented by a line prefixed with $. Information returned from the execution of a command may be appended under the line to show the expected output. For example:

$ balena version

1. Application Setup

1.1 Create an Application and Provision a Device

For the following exercises, we need an application and a device to run the code. Create an application named FleetMasterclass and device using either the Getting Started Guide (to use the dashboard) or the CLI masterclass (to use the CLI). Be sure to download a development image, and when the device has been provisioned, list the device(s) associated with the application using the balena devices command of the CLI.

$ balena devices --app FleetMasterclass
1750246 3a628fc frosty-wildflower raspberrypi4-64 FleetMasterclass      Idle   true      10.3.7             balenaOS 2.44.0+rev3

You should see a device listed in the output. Take note of the device ID (1750246) and UUID (3a628fc in the example above) as we need these for the remainder of the exercises. For any issues using the CLI consult the CLI masterclass.

1.2 Push the First Release

Ensure you are in the base of the balena-fleet-masterclass repository, and use the CLI to push the first release.

$ balena push FleetMasterclass
[Info]     Starting build for FleetMasterclass, user gh_garethtdavies
[Info]     Dashboard link:
[Info]     Building on arm01
[Info]     Pulling previous images for caching purposes...
[Success]  Successfully pulled cache images
[main]     Step 1/6 : FROM balenalib/raspberrypi4-64-python:3-stretch-run
[main]      ---> 80ed10cd539e
[main]     Step 2/6 : WORKDIR /usr/src/app
[main]      ---> Running in cc882c429498
[main]     Removing intermediate container cc882c429498
[main]      ---> 225a84f23f6a
[main]     Step 3/6 : COPY requirements.txt requirements.txt
[main]      ---> d3b90acd7a1f
[main]     Step 4/6 : RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
[main]      ---> Running in 409756ed0287
[main]     Collecting Flask==0.12.3
[main]       Downloading (88kB)
[main]     Collecting itsdangerous>=0.21
[main]       Downloading
[main]     Collecting Jinja2>=2.4
[main]       Downloading (125kB)
[main]     Collecting Werkzeug>=0.7
[main]       Downloading (327kB)
[main]     Collecting click>=2.0
[main]       Downloading (81kB)
[main]     Collecting MarkupSafe>=0.23
[main]       Downloading
[main]     Installing collected packages: itsdangerous, MarkupSafe, Jinja2, Werkzeug, click, Flask
[main]         Running install for MarkupSafe: started
[main]         Running install for MarkupSafe: finished with status 'done'
[main]     Successfully installed Flask-0.12.3 Jinja2-2.10.3 MarkupSafe-1.1.1 Werkzeug-0.16.0 click-7.0 itsdangerous-1.1.0
[main]     Removing intermediate container 409756ed0287
[main]      ---> 0673ebd2fac0
[main]     Step 5/6 : COPY . ./
[main]      ---> 6665152292f4
[main]     Step 6/6 : CMD ["python","-u","src/"]
[main]      ---> Running in f3a8a9fd8216
[main]     Removing intermediate container f3a8a9fd8216
[main]      ---> fd57d9e0d71a
[main]     Successfully built fd57d9e0d71a
[Info]     Uploading images
[Success]  Successfully uploaded images
[Info]     Built on arm01
[Success]  Release successfully created!
[Info]     Release: 2e24c6a7a427d3ce01f4a5edbe967346 (id: 1154144)
[Info]     ┌─────────┬────────────┬────────────┐
[Info]     │ Service │ Image Size │ Build Time │
[Info]     ├─────────┼────────────┼────────────┤
[Info]     │ main    │ 231.49 MB  │ 19 seconds │
[Info]     └─────────┴────────────┴────────────┘
[Info]     Build finished in 32 seconds
                _.-(6'  \
               (=___._/` \
                    )  \ |
                   /   / |
                  /    > /
                 j    < _\
             _.-' :      ``.
             \ r=._\        `.
            <`\\_  \         .`-.
             \ r-7  `-. ._  ' .  `\
              \`,      `-.`7  7)   )
               \/         \|  \'  / `-._
                          ||    .'
                           \\  (
                            >\  >
                        ,.-' >.'

The application itself is a simple Python Flask application, which we will use to echo details about the code running on the device by either accessing the device in the browser or via the curl command from the terminal of your development machine. Using the UUID.local syntax of your device issue the following command:

$ curl http://3a628fc.local
Welcome to the balena Fleet Management Masterclass

Alternatively, point your web browser to the device local IP address or http://3a628fc.local, replacing with your device UUID to see the Welcome to the balena Fleet Management Masterclass text.

2. Access Tokens

During the masterclass, we will use the balena API to manage the application and device(s). To get started using the API, you need an access token. Access tokens are managed via the Access tokens tab of the Preferences page of the dashboard.

Access tokens

Access tokens may be used to authenticate via the CLI, SDKs, and all API endpoints. Access tokens should be treated as sensitive and stored securely and never committed to a version control system. Balena offers two types of access tokens that offer the same user-level permissions to manage applications, devices, and the associated user account.

  • Session tokens - these tokens expire after seven days and cannot be revoked, though they may be refreshed via the API.
  • API Keys - these are named tokens that do not expire and may be revoked as needed.

Either type of access token can be used for this masterclass. Session tokens are much longer and may cause an issue in specific environments when executing shell commands using them, so using an API key for this masterclass is preferable. Once created, save the API key to an environment variable for the current shell with the following command, replacing <YOUR_API_TOKEN> with the value of the token obtained from the dashboard.


We can test the API token by issuing a request to obtain information about the application named FleetMasterclass. The URL is encoded in the example below, which makes it hard to read; the decoded query we are making is:$filter=app_name eq 'FleetMasterclass'.

curl -X GET '$filter=app_name%20eq%20%27FleetMasterclass%27' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json'

If you have an application named FleetMasterclass associated with your account, a JSON object containing the application data will be returned. To make this easier to read, pipe the output into the jq utility by appending | jq '.' to the end of the previous command:

curl -X GET '$filter=app_name%20eq%20%27FleetMasterclass%27' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' | jq '.'
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100   492  100   492    0     0   1233      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--  1230
  "d": [
      "id": 1550049,
      "user": {
        "__deferred": {
          "uri": "/resin/user(129965)"
        "__id": 129965
      "depends_on__application": null,
      "actor": 4187117,
      "app_name": "FleetMasterclass",
      "slug": "gh_garethtdavies/masterclass",
      "commit": "06fe2d0180683294128ea2c7d8134d99",
      "application_type": {
        "__deferred": {
          "uri": "/resin/application_type(5)"
        "__id": 5
      "device_type": "raspberrypi4-64",
      "should_track_latest_release": true,
      "is_accessible_by_support_until__date": null,
      "__metadata": {
        "uri": "/resin/application(@id)?@id=1550049"

Note: If you see a blank output or an unauthorized response, ensure that you have set the API_TOKEN environment variable. You can check this by running echo $API_TOKEN in your terminal, which should output the value of the access token. Environment variables set this way do not persist between sessions, so if you close your terminal, you will need to set the API_TOKEN variable again or make it persistent.

3. Configuration

You can configure your entire application fleet, devices, and individual services through the use of configuration, environment, and service variables. Variables may be defined at both the fleet (application) and device level, with any variables of the same name set at the device-level taking precedence.

3.1 Configuration Variables

Configuration variables provide runtime configuration to the host OS and supervisor. A description of the various available configuration variables can be found here.

Let's enable persistent logging for our device via the API. By default, logs are written to an 8MB journald RAM buffer to avoid wear on the storage medium, and so any logs do not persist on a reboot. Enabling persistent logging writes up to 32MB of logs to the data partition of the device (for balenaOS >= 2.45) and can assist in debugging issues over multiple reboots. To enable persistent logging for a device, send the following POST request replacing your device_id in the request below. You can obtain your device ID from the output of balena devices --app FleetMasterclass.

curl -X POST '' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d '{
    "device": "2134742",
    "value": "1"

On success, you will see the newly created device configuration value.


Many configuration updates require a reboot of the device to apply, which is triggered automatically via a VPN notification when a configuration value is changed. Note that if the VPN is inaccessible this change will be picked up via the device supervisor when it next polls the API. Viewing the web terminal of the device, you should see a notification in the logs, and the device will subsequently reboot.

04.05.20 12:46:47 (-0700) Applying configuration change {"SUPERVISOR_PERSISTENT_LOGGING":"1"}
04.05.20 12:46:47 (-0700) Applied configuration change {"SUPERVISOR_PERSISTENT_LOGGING":"1"}
04.05.20 12:46:47 (-0700) Rebooting
04.05.20 10:24:40 (-0700) Supervisor starting

Let's disable persistent logging again with a PATCH request. To do so, the configuration variable id that was returned when creating the configuration value is required.

curl -X PATCH '' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d '{
    "value": "0"

If you don't know the device configuration variable id, you can list all configuration values for a device via the following GET request, again replacing with your device_id.

curl -X GET '$filter=device%20eq%202134742' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json'

You can also update this configuration value for the entire fleet. Access the Fleet Configuration tab of the Applications dashboard and select activate next to Enable persistent logging. Only supported by supervisor versions >= v7.15.0.. Then click on Enable to set the configuration value. Note that because we have an existing override for the device, it will not be applied to our device but only to any additional devices joining the application.

Enable persistent logging

3.2 Environment Variables

Environment variables allow the providing of runtime configuration to one or more running services without having to modify your source code. You can add environment variables to an entire fleet or a single device. Use the CLI to create an application environment variable called MY_NAME and give it a value of your own name e.g.

$ balena env add MY_NAME Gareth --application FleetMasterclass

Now we'll update our application to echo this application environment variable. Update line 7 of src/ taking care to keep the indentation:

    return "Your name is " + os.environ.get('MY_NAME')

Now push the updated application:

$ balena push FleetMasterclass

Once it has been downloaded to the device, view the output on the device, which should match the environment variable we just set:

$ curl http://3a628fc.local
Your name is Gareth

We can override this application environment variable at the device level by creating a device environment variable of the same name. Do this from the Device Variables tab of the Device dashboard, modifying the MY_NAME variable with a new value.

Add a device variable

Confirm that the device variable takes precedence by accessing the device IP or via curl, which should display our updated variable.

$ curl http://3a628fc.local
Your name is Gareth Updated

3.3 Service Variables

Environment variables are accessible to all services running on a device, whereas service variables are assigned to a specific service. Service variables can be created via the dashboard or via the API, either for the application or per device. The CLI does not currently support service-specific variables.

Create a new device service variable named MY_NAME from the Device Service Variables tab of the Device dashboard and give it a unique value. As we only have a single service for this application, the default service value of main is the only available option.

Add device service variable

Now you should see our device service variable echoed correctly, taking precedence over the other environment variables.

curl 3a628fc.local
Your name is Gareth Service

4. Tagging

Tags provide an easy way to include more information about your devices and releases. Using tags, you have the option to create multiple key:value pairs to add additional metadata to devices and releases that may be used, for example, to identify a user-defined group of devices or a specific release.

You can manage tags via the dashboard, CLI, API, or SDKs. Check the documentation located here for more on how tags can be managed through the CLI.

4.1 Add a Device Tag using the Dashboard

Add a tag from the Application dashboard by clicking the checkbox to the left of the device(s) you wish to tag, followed by the Tags button on the right side of the dashboard.

Enter the name of the tag as devDevice to identify this device as a development one in the application fleet for our use (we will later use this tag in the examples for filtering). We can specify a name only or both a name and value pair. In this example, we are just adding a tag name. Tag names must be unique.

Note, the following GIFs and screenshots use the tag development. However, to avoid confusion with the host OS version (also named development) it is strongly recommended you create your tag as devDevice or similar.

Adding a tag via the dashboard

To edit the tag, you can repeat the process, selecting the device(s) and clicking the Tags button where you can edit any existing tags. You can also manage tags from the device summary page.

Device Summary

4.2 Add a Release Tag using the API

Using release tags, we can identify releases by something other than a commit hash or release ID. For example, let's update our application and give the latest release a version:v1.0.0 tag.

Update line 7 of src/ to the following:

    return "I am version 1.0.0 of the Masterclass"

Push the latest version of the application noting the release ID in the build output (we'll see alternative ways of obtaining this information later).

$ balena push FleetMasterclass
[Info]     Starting build for FleetMasterclass, user gh_garethtdavies
[Success]  Release successfully created!
[Info]     Release: 56faf0d8be050fbd65e15d8ab0f23993 (id: 1156095)

Create the release tag by issuing the following POST request in your terminal, updating the release value to match your release ID. Again, we'll pipe the output to jq to make viewing the response easier.

curl -X POST '' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d '{
    "release": 1156095,
    "tag_key": "version",
    "value": "v1.0.0"
}' | jq '.'

If the request is successful you will see a response for the newly created tag:

  "id": 63744,
  "release": {
    "__deferred": {
      "uri": "/resin/release(1156095)"
    "__id": 1156095
  "tag_key": "version",
  "value": "v1.0.0",
  "__metadata": {
    "uri": "/resin/release_tag(@id)?@id=63744"

We can confirm that this worked by visiting the Application dashboard and clicking the Releases tab. You may need to add a new column to view the tags associated with the releases and our newly created version:v1.0.0 tag.

Release tag

You can edit a tag via the API by issuing a PATCH request to again using the release ID. To delete the tag, send a DELETE request to the same URL. For more information, consult the API documentation.

4.3 Identifying Releases

There is no CLI equivalent of balena devices to determine all releases for an application, and you will often need to identify specific releases for tagging purposes.

You can find all releases via the dashboard by clicking the Releases tab in the Application dashboard.

Dashboard releases

Using the API, we can request all releases for an application by issuing the following request, using the app_id of the application (1542022) in this example. You can obtain the app_id via balena apps | grep FleetMasterclass.

$ curl -X GET '$filter=belongs_to__application%20eq%201542022' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' | jq '.'

5. Filtering

Filters provide a convenient way to find specific devices and releases based on shared characteristics quickly.

5.1 Add a new filter

We are going to filter on a device tag that we just created, though you may filter on any device property available in the Device dashboard or on any user-defined tag. As we only have a single device, this example is more to demonstrate how this feature could be used on a larger fleet.

Create a filter by clicking Add filter on the Application dashboard and choose Tag in the available filters and enter a Name of devDevice.

Create a filter

5.2 Create a View

Views allow us to save filters, rather than having to reenter them each time we want to filter our devices. For example, we will save the current filter, which selects all devices with a tag name of devDevice to a view named Development Devices. Create this view by selecting the Save as view link, which is visible whenever there is a filter applied.

Save a view

5.3 Filter with the API

The API has powerful filter capabilities through the use of the $filter property. We will only cover the basic filters, and more detail can be found via the OData specification or this OData cheatsheet for all available filter operations.

For example, let's find all the devices in our application that are online using the app id (1550049) in the example. For readability, the decoded version of this query is$filter=belongs_to__application eq '1550049' and is_online eq true.

curl -X GET '$filter=belongs_to__application%20eq%20%271550049%27%20and%20is_online%20eq%20true' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json'
  "d": [
      "id": 1750246,
      "device_name": "frosty-wildflower",
      "device_type": "raspberrypi4-64",
      "uuid": "3a628fcf6651dd61c94aef0fb88efee9",
      "is_on__commit": "f1d6967bd615f5e5947a83f788fadfbd",
      "note": null,
      "local_id": null,
      "status": "Idle",
      "is_online": true,
      "last_connectivity_event": "2019-11-19T21:51:39.705Z",
      "is_connected_to_vpn": true,
      "last_vpn_event": "2019-11-19T21:51:39.705Z",

The response from that query should return your online device(s). If you power off your device(s) and run the query again, you should get an empty response. Alternatively, change is_online to false to display the now offline device(s) for the FleetMasterclass application.

curl -X GET '$filter=belongs_to__application%20eq%20%271550049%27%20and%20is_online%20eq%20false' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json'

We can also identify our devices tagged as devDevice via the API by using the following request:

curl -X GET '$filter=tag_key%20eq%20%27devDevice%27&$expand=device' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json'

6. Release Policy

When managing an application fleet, you may require devices to be running different releases, for example, when testing a new release. By default, new releases are deployed to all devices in the fleet once successfully built. However, you can customize this behavior, so the application fleet or individual devices remain on a fixed release by pinning them.

You can define the application and device release policy via the dashboard or programmatically through the API or SDKs.

6.1 Pin an Application to a Release

In the last exercise, we pushed a release that we tagged as version:v1.0.0. We want our application to remain on this release even if newer releases are deployed (for example, we may wish to test the newer releases on a subset of devices before we push to the remainder of the application fleet).

In the Applications dashboard, there is a Release policy header. By default, this is set to track latest, which means that new releases are immediately deployed to all devices in the fleet when built. Expanding this Release policy dropdown menu displays all releases for the application, from which you can select a specific release to pin the application to. When the application is pinned, all devices are immediately updated to run the pinned release if they are not already running it, and in the future, releases will not be deployed until the Release policy is updated to a newer release or set to track latest.

Pin your application to the latest release by selecting it from the dropdown.

Pin application to release

Now update line #7 of src/ to read:

    return "I am version 2.0.0 of the Masterclass"

Deploy this release via balena push FleetMasterclass, and now, despite there being a newer release, the application and device remain on the v1.0.0 release which you can validate by issuing the following command:

curl 3a628fc.local
I am version 1.0.0 of the FleetMasterclass

6.2 Pin Device to a Release

As well as pinning an entire application to a specific release, you may pin individual devices. By default, all devices track the application release policy. However, you may wish to run a different release on select devices, for example, a development device or when performing a canary deployment where a subset of devices receive the update to evaluate it before pushing more widely.

From the Applications dashboard, select the device(s) you wish to pin and choose Pin to release from the Actions menu and select the latest release.

Pin device to release

You may also pin a device from the device dashboard:

Pin device via dashboard

The pinned device will update immediately to run the latest release (if it is not already). Once the device has updated, again validate it is running the latest release with the command:

curl 3a628fc.local
I am version 2.0.0 of the Masterclass

We can use the filter and view we created in exercise #5 to quickly select all of our development devices, from which we can quickly pin all the target devices to a specific version.

Pin tagged version

6.3 Pin using the API

We can perform similar actions via the API to pin applications and devices programmatically.

For applications, the should_track_latest_release property specifies if the latest release should be deployed to devices. Let's see the result of our currently pinned application, again we'll get a list of applications filtered by FleetMasterclass:

$ curl -X GET '$filter=app_name%20eq%20%27FleetMasterclass%27' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' | jq '.'
  "d": [
      "id": 1550049,
      "user": {
        "__deferred": {
          "uri": "/resin/user(129965)"
        "__id": 129965
      "depends_on__application": null,
      "actor": 4187117,
      "app_name": "FleetMasterclass",
      "slug": "gh_garethtdavies/masterclass",
      "commit": "56faf0d8be050fbd65e15d8ab0f23993",
      "application_type": {
        "__deferred": {
          "uri": "/resin/application_type(5)"
        "__id": 5
      "device_type": "raspberrypi4-64",
      "should_track_latest_release": false,
      "is_accessible_by_support_until__date": null,
      "__metadata": {
        "uri": "/resin/application(@id)?@id=1550049"

Note that should_track_latest_release is false, and the commit corresponds to the release we pinned the application to. Let's update this so that the application once again follows the latest release. First, update line 7 of src/ to read:

    return "I am version 3.0.0 of the Masterclass"

Followed by $ balena push FleetMasterclass.

As our device is pinned to the version 2.0.0 release, it will not follow any application updates, so first, via the Device dashboard, choose Pin to release and change the device release policy to Track, so the device once again follows the application device policy (which is currently pinned to version 1.0.0).

Set device to track application

Once updated, confirm it is again following the application release policy:

$ curl 3a628fc.local
I am version 1.0.0 of the Masterclass

Now issue the following API request, which sends a PATCH request to set should_track_latest to true, so the application will deploy the latest available release, replacing the app_id with your application ID.

$ curl -X PATCH '' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d '{
    "should_track_latest_release": true

If successful, all devices that are following the application release policy will be updated to the latest available release. Now, accessing the device again we can confirm we are on the latest release:

$ curl 3a628fc.local
I am version 3.0.0 of the Masterclass

After we deployed this, let's imagine we found a bug in the version 3.0.0 release, and we want to set all devices back to version 2.0.0. We could either do this by pinning each device or set the entire fleet to a single commit.

In the API request, we will set both should_track_latest_release to false and set the commit to the commit hash of the version we want to roll back to. If we don't set should_track_latest_release to false while all devices will be updated to the specified commit, if any new releases are deployed, they will be pushed to all devices, which may not be the behavior we want.

$ curl -X PATCH '' -H "Authorization: Bearer $API_TOKEN" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d '{
    "should_track_latest_release": false,
    "commit": "9ba8aa013aab5c0fd8c24977c3699f25"

Finally, we can confirm we are back on our stable version 2.0.0 release.

$ curl 3a628fc.local
I am version 2.0.0 of the Masterclass

For devices, the should_be_running__release property may be used to specify a release ID to pin the device to. When this is set, the device will no longer follow the application release policy. We can update our development device to v3.0.0 again and use this device to test our application (properly this time) while the rest of the application fleet remains on v2.0.0. Issue the following API request replacing your device ID and release ID:

curl -X PATCH '' -H 'Authorization: Bearer nmotTcNaNiS3p5DrQepRhk6hQ9luNX9f' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d '{
    "should_be_running__release": 1141794

7. Best Practices for Production Fleets

When it is time to move your fleet to production, there are a number of recommended best practices:

  • Use frozen images and fixed dependencies to ensure there are no unexpected updates.
  • Minimize the size of your releases through the use of multistage builds and the minimal run variants of the balena base images.
  • Use a release policy to safely roll out new application deployments through the use of release pinning.
  • Enable delta updates to reduce bandwidth and storage space required on the device. Note that delta updates are now enabled by default for any devices running balenaOS >= 2.47.1.
  • Use an ESR version of the host OS if available.
  • Test your releases before deployment with a CI/CD pipeline.
  • If your application generates significant log data consider adding a log collection agent to your application containers.
  • Monitor your application with a solution such as Prometheus.

7.1 Selecting Base Images

In production, you should use a minimal image to reduce bandwidth requirements and to reduce deployment time. This can be achieved using multistage builds, which is covered in detail in the services masterclass and the minimal run variants of the balena base images.

In addition, you should choose a frozen image to remove any unexpected updates of the base image, which may result in additional bandwidth.

To illustrate this, we will update our application to use a more suitable base image for production. In the Dockerfile.template update the base image to:

FROM balenalib/%%BALENA_MACHINE_NAME%%-debian-python:3.7.5-stretch-run-20191106

We are using a frozen image of 20191106, which means this image will never be updated on DockerHub. While we are not using a multistage build, we are using a run variant of the base image, which is a minimal variant of the chosen distribution (Debian Stretch in this example).

7.2 Integrating a CI/CD pipeline

Another aspect of fleet management is the deployment of an application to that fleet when new code for that application is available. Usually, the CI/CD pipeline for new functionality into an application consists of:

  1. An engineer implementing this functionality and then testing it locally.
  2. The release, or Pull Requesting (PRing), of code to an application branch for reviewing and end-to-end testing, usually in a staged environment.
  3. The merging of code into the master branch of an application.

For feature implementation and testing, a development device can be put into 'local mode'. This allows an engineer to push new application code straight to a local device, saving time and not filling up application releases with development code. See the documentation for local mode and the section in the balena CLI masterclass.

Usually, most customers use third-party CI/CD services such as Jenkins, CircleCI, Travis, etc. which pull changes from feature branches in source repositories, build them and then test the built applications against a test 'rig'. All of the mentioned services (and almost all CI/CD services) allow the specification of custom scripts for initializing environments for these build/test cycles, and balena CLI can be installed via a script to carry out the final pushing of code to an application for release. Here's how a generic development, build, test cycle might work:

  1. Engineer develops new functionality for an application using a device in local mode.
  2. PR for changes are made to the application via a branch.
  3. The branch change is picked up by the third-party CI/CD service, where the build and test environment includes the balena-cli NPM module, and a test application on balenaCloud is referenced.
  4. The application is built using balena push testApplication and relevant test devices are updated and tested.
  5. The test succeeds or fails, and the PR is updated accordingly.
  6. Finally, after successful testing and review, the branch is merged to master.
  7. The CI/CD service picks up the merge and carries out the final build, where the master branch swaps the application to build to the production application (i.e. balena push masterApplication).

8. Application Ownership

In balenaCloud, there are multiple member types, each offering different permissions (some of which are only available to paid plans). You can add application members on the Members tab of the Application dashboard:

Add application member

  • Owner - The user who created the application and has full permissions to add other members and remove the application.
  • Observer - Observers are given read-only access to the application and its devices.
  • Operator - Operators have all the access given to observers, plus the ability to manage an application's devices. This means operators can remove devices, perform device actions, and modify device tags, metadata, and environment variables. Operators also have full SSH access to the application's devices.
  • Developer - Developers are given, in addition to the access provided to operators, the ability to manage an application. This includes pushing new code, modifying fleet-wide environment variables, running application actions, and downloading application images.

9. Enabling Support

It is possible to enable support access to the entire application fleet or to individual devices for a set time period.

To enable support access for a single device, select the Actions menu in the Device dashboard, and choose the Grant Support Access button and choose the period of time to grant device access. You may revoke access at any time by selecting Revoke Support Access on the same page.

Enable support for a device

To enable support access for an entire application fleet, select the Grant Support Access from the Actions menu of the Application dashboard and choose the period of time to grant access to all devices in the application fleet. Again, this may be revoked at any time by selecting Revoke Support Access on the same page.

Enable support access for an application

It is possible to disable this functionality with the removal of the balena SSH public key from the device. However, this will render the device inaccessible remotely for the purposes of support or repairs and updates to the base OS.


This masterclass has covered the fundamentals of fleet management with balena. You should now be able to perform various fleet management tasks using the dashboard, CLI, and API. You should now feel confident to:

  • Create an API key and create an API request.
  • Describe the different configuration, environment, and service variables available.
  • Tag devices and releases.
  • Create filters and views in the dashboard and use filters with the API.
  • Pin applications and devices to specific releases.
  • Detail the different ownership levels in an application.
  • Recommend best practices in deploying a fleet to production.
  • Enable support for application fleets and individual devices.